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Making jelly is fun!

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Pressure canning lid is locked into place

A two-part “Food Safety and Beginning Canning” class was taught by Lyon County Extension Educator Joy Paterson. The first part of the course consisted of a two hour long workshop where participants learned the biology of botulism, the science of food selection and preparation for use in canning and the basics of boiling water bath canning and pressure canning. Unsafe or untested methods of canning were briefly discussed with scientific discussion of why some methods are unsafe, unpredictable or untested using the latest information from the USDA Complete Guide to Home Canning. During the workshop, participants checked canning jars for safety, handled various canning equipment and looked at canned jars of food. Participants were encouraged to bring their equipment to share with the course and for a safety evaluation of pressure canning equipment. Even veteran canners learned new information that will make grandma’s recipes safer and canning that produce faster.

Are you canning at the right pressure for you altitude?

Are you canning at the right pressure for you altitude?

Afternoon class cuts up garden vegetables for a quick canning pickle

Afternoon class cuts up garden vegetables for a quick canning pickle

Tomatoes are peeled, cored and placed in the cooking pot for a hot pack

Tomatoes are peeled, cored and placed in the cooking pot for a hot pack

During the hands-on portion held at Holy Family Catholic Church’s community center kitchen, participants canned using a hot pack and a cold pack method with both a pressure canner and boiling water bath equipment. Groups prepared jars, cleaned and prepared produce, followed recipes, filled jars, tightened lids and safely processed the food they prepared. The two groups cleaned, peeled and hot packed tomatoes. Green beans were cold packed and pressure canned by the first group. Jam recipes for blackberries and zinfandel grapes was demonstrated and participants processed the jars. Group two cold packed garden vegetable pickles. Jars of food prepared the day before were cleaned and checked for a proper seal. Information discussed in during the workshop were reinforced and everyone left feeling confident enough to can their own jars of treasure from the garden.

There is interest in a course that focuses on fall canning of fruits and fall garden produce, with potential dates in October. I would like to teach a canning class next summer in your part of the county. We need access to a commercial kitchen with 10-20 paid participants. Classes can be modified to what the group wants to learn. If you are interested in attending a future canning course or can assist in facilitating one, email, call or come by the Lyon County Cooperative Extension Office.

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Close-up of a yellow starthistle, showing the star-shaped spines around the base of the flower

Close-up of a yellow starthistle, showing the star-shaped spines around the base of the flower

Yellow starthistle is an annual plant with yellow flowers with long white spines covering the plant. Under a microscope, the surface of the plant also has thin curly hairs that cover the surface and cause a grey appearance to the stems and leaves. The plant can vary greatly in size from very short, 6 inches, to over 5 feet with stems that appear winged. It has a deep taproot and with many branched stems. Disturbance allows yellow starthistle to rapidly colonize areas. Once established, it is able to rapidly remove the moisture from the soil, preventing other plants from establishing. Ideal habitats are dry and sunny. Flowers are very productive, producing thousands of seeds per plant. Horses should not graze in areas where yellow starthistle is present. It can cause chewing disease, which is fatal for horses that eat the plant.

Side view of the flower head and stem, notice the winged appearance of the stem, long yellow spines and greyish appearance of the plant surface

Side view of the flower head and stem, notice the winged appearance of the stem, long yellow spines and greyish appearance of the plant surface

Distribution of yellow starthistle is broad across the United States. Spreading in our area of Nevada anecdotally follows primarily riverways and weed management work along the Carson river watershed in Carson County has focused on preventing spread further downstream. It has been reported 11 times in Lyon County by EDDMapSWEST and is currently unreported by the USDA PLANTS database. While these reports were in Southern Lyon county, it is likely to spread into Northern Lyon county via waterways or highways. It has been reported to infest between 10 and 15 million acres in California. The photos in this blog were taken in California, where I observed yellow starthistle infesting roadways, fields, irrigation ditches and encroaching into natural areas.

Yellow starthistle growing on dry roadside

Yellow starthistle growing on dry roadside

Management of yellow starthistle is most effective when weeds are managed prior to going to seed. Frequent scouting in areas of potential spread, repeated scouting in treated areas and removal of plants prior to seeding. Small patches are best handled with hand pulling ensuring that all flower heads are contained to prevent spread at the disposal location. Larger patches have a variety of control options, but without re-vegetation with desirable plants,  yellow starthistle can quickly re-establish. Prevention of establishment relies on effective reporting and treatment of infested areas. Email photos of suspected yellow starthistle for identification confirmation.

 

 

By Marcia Moffitt

Elm leaves skeletonized by elm leaf beetle turn brown and ugly

Elm leaves skeletonized by elm leaf beetle turn brown and ugly

Are your elm tree leaves turning brown and dying? An initial reaction might be to water the tree more because we are in a drought and other trees are also loosing leaves. That is unless you are familiar with the elm leaf beetle. If you observe that the brown leaves on an elm look different from other tree species’ brown leaves and have a “lacey” appearance, then additional watering will not solve the problem.

Adult elm leaf beetles hibernate over winter in wood piles, crevices and leaf litter; emerge in the spring and fly to elm foliage to feed. They lay yellowish eggs on the undersides of leaves in double rows. The eggs hatch and

Elm leaf beetle larvae, 3rd or 4th instar, feed on elm leaves

Elm leaf beetle larvae, 3rd or 4th instar, feed on elm leaves

the larvae go through three growth stages over several weeks during which time they feed on and skeletonize the leaves. This is what causes the leaves to turn brown and take on the “lacey” appearance. Once the larvae mature, they crawl down the tree trunk and pupate at the base of the tree.   Roughly ten days later, adult beetles emerge fly to the foliage and begin the cycle again.   Adult beetles chew through the leaves and this damage appears similar to shot-hole damage. Multiple generations can occur in one year. In the fall, adults beetles begin looking for places to overwinter and can enter homes through cracks and crevices.

Close up of an elm leaf beetle larva

Close up of an elm leaf beetle larva

Adult elm leaf beetle

Adult elm leaf beetle

When dealing with elm leaf beetles, it is best to use an integrated pest management (IPM) approach. IPM incorporates a variety of techniques to keep populations of elm leaf beetle to a tolerable level. These techniques involve good cultural practices, conservation of natural enemies, regular monitoring and less-persistent chemical usage. University of Nevada Cooperative Extension and University of California fact sheets are very good references detailing IPM techniques for controlling Elm leaf beetles. Both references incorporate preventive guidelines and cultural, biological, botanical and chemical controls as an integrated approach to dealing with this pest. When choosing a biological control, specifically Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis), be aware that there are varieties of Bt and each is effective against certain insects.

Once a tree is infested with elm leaf beetles, take action to maintain the vigor of the elm tree and reduce other stressing factors.   Ensure that the tree is getting sufficient water, don’t compact or disturb the soil underneath the tree and prevent trunk and limb injuries. A healthy elm tree can survive even heavy defoliation if it occurs in late summer and not repeatedly every year.

By Judy Halterman and Joy Paterson

Veggies for Kids partnered with The Boys and Girls Club of Mason Valley to provide healthy eating educational activities to local youth

Judy teaches kids who enthusiastically join her activities

Judy teaches kids who enthusiastically join her activities

during a week long summer institute. Youngsters from 5 years old to 8th grade participated in the activities. Each day, of the 4 day institute, they were taught a different lesson on “Food from Plants” to help them understand where food comes from and about healthy eating choices. A total of 180 youth participated throughout the week.

The first lesson’s question was, “What parts of plants does food come from?” An interactive game had youth running to different stations that identified which parts of the plants that a particular fruit or vegetable came from. For example, Judy would yell “Pineapple” and the kids would select their answer by running to a station labeled “seed, root, stem, leaf, flower or fruit”. The kids would then learn the correct answer and why that pineapple was a fruit and that fruits are formed from the ovary part of a flower. After learning about plant parts, they went outside on a scavenger hunt looking for various parts of plants. The kids loved moving around and exploring familiar plants in new ways.

Day two focused on what plant parts are in common foods. “Do donuts come from plants?” All the kids originally said “NO”, but they learned  flour and sugar comes from plants. They tasted crackers, jelly, pickles, raisins, ketchup and pickles and learned what plants these foods came from and the course the food would take to make it to their plate in the form they were tasting. Do you know what the 4 most eaten foods in the world are? Youth learned they are: wheat, rice, corn and soybean. Discussions included how these foods are used in our everyday eating.

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Youth show the bunnies hiding in the grass, before eating their art

A boy arranges a peach on his plate to create his fruit and veggie masterpiece

A boy arranges a peach on his plate to create his fruit and veggie masterpiece

Cooking or combine things from plants into tasty dishes was the focus of the third day. They were given items from plants and allowed to create their own style of humus from scratch. They added their own spices, mashed the chickpeas and tasted on crackers to see if they liked what they made. While some were fine, most of them added too much salt or pepper. Fortunately, Judy had some tasty humus for the kids to eat.

Example garden map where youth could plan what they wanted to grow in their ideal garden

Example garden map where youth could plan what they wanted to grow in their ideal garden

The final day children designed their perfect garden. They studied what vegetables could be grown together and what vegetables should be grown apart. Youth created a garden map with different aspects of a garden with different sun exposure, soil fertility and other real-life challenges that gardeners face. The kids had a great time learning where plants would grow best. Art and science met in an hands-on activity creating food art. Food art activities engage the creativity of kids using fruits and vegetables to make a a bunny hiding in the grass. Is anything better than art you can eat?

Youth plants seeds into the window box they created

Youth plants seeds into the window box they created

Over the course of the summer institute, vegetable and herb window gardens were created by the kids using milk carton boxes, soil and  four different types of seeds. Youth learned about what plants need to be able to grow and designed the outside to with information about each plant. These were made out of 4 milk cartons taped together with white duct tape. They then designed the boxes using magic markers and crayons. The kids then planted spinach, mache (lettuce), and several types of herbs. They learned how to take care of their boxes once they were taken home. Visits to the school garden at Yerington Elementary School served as a real garden where participants picked green beans, tasted fresh-off-the-vine cherry tomatoes, and pulled weeds. Learning how the garden grows and where food we eat everyday comes from. The hoop house became a regular learning experience, with the club helping throughout the summer to collect produce, tend plants and pull weeds. Vegetables were then eaten fresh by the kids or cooked into delicious food at the club for all to try.

Veggies for Kids will continue to educate youth about fruits and vegetables throughout the school year. Special thanks to the Boys and Girls Club of Mason Valley and Darci Beaton for facilitating all weeks activity and help with the hoop house garden over the summer. For more information about the Veggies for Kids program, contact Judy Halterman.

 

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Judy with her class motto “Eat Smart, Play Hard, Drink Water…Not Soda”

By Judy Halterman and Joy Paterson

“Eat Smart, Play Hard, Drink Water, Not Soda” is a motto that most K and 1st graders who attended Yerington Elementary School or 2nd and 3rd graders at Smith Valley Elementary School last year know by heart. Veggies for Kids is a funded State of Nevada SNAP-ed program designed to teach kids about proper nutrition and exercise. Judy Halterman has been working with Yerington and Smith Valley youth teaching them how to grow and eat veggies and fruit using demonstration gardens, twelve weeks of in-school instruction and hosts a healthy lifestyle summer institute. Kids learn through direct instruction (lecture), food tastings, worksheets, games, problem solving, questioning techniques, and vegetable growing experiences.

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Judy picks her golden beets from the hoop house

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Veggies for Kids program was created and piloted by the University of Nevada Cooperative Extension in 2005 by Mineral County Cooperative Extension, and has been implemented at Hawthorne Elementary School and Schurz Elementary School in Mineral County, Natchez Elementary School in Washoe County, and Owyhee Elementary School in Elko County. Last year the program was expanded to include Smith Valley Elementary School and Yerington Elementary School in Lyon County.

Last years classes increased their ability to identify and name the five food groups and six vegetables. Kids learned the importance of playing hard for at least 60 minutes everyday to increase physical well-being. Drinking water to stay hydrated was emphasized with lessons comparing water to sugary drinks. Eating fun new fruits and vegetables was an exciting part, with kids declaring “What are we going to have for snack today Mrs. Halterman?” This led to an increased

Judy's garden favorite, red noodle beans

Judy’s garden favorite, red noodle beans

willingness to try and consume more fruits and vegetables. Vick Williams assisted Judy in educating the youth about Native American culture including food, building materials and clothing while using story-telling to engage them. The students were also able to sample buck berries, pine nuts, and asparagus.  Hispanic foods lesson was also incorporated with tasting of corn tortillas, beans and cheese. The program is anticipated to continue in the 2015-2016 school year for Yerington and Smith Valley Elementary Schools.